TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.

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Lot 176
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.

Sold for US$ 69,062 inc. premium
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.
Stafford L. Warren (1896-1981) was a physician and radiologist who served as Chief of the Medical Division of the Manhattan Project during World War II. In that capacity, he was present at the Trinity Test in New Mexico, collecting data on radiation dispersal; he led a survey team to assess the aftereffects of the bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and was chief of the Radiological Safety Section at the Operations Crossroads testing at the Bikini Atoll. This lot includes papers related to his time on the Trinity Project, including a diary of the events before, during and after; notes and charts synthesizing the data; and drafts of the reports he ultimately submitted, as follows:
1. WARREN, STAFFORD L. 1896-1981. Autograph Manuscript in pencil and pen, diary of events leading up to and including the detonation of the A-bomb and its immediate aftermath, 25 pp 4to and 8vo, [White Plains, NM], July 11-16, 1945, a few pages featuring charts, graphs, and diagrams.

Famous for his work developing the mammogram while on the faculty at University of Rochester, Warren was recruited by General Leslie Groves to join the Manhattan Project team and commissioned as a Colonel in November of 1943. Initially his job was to staff hospitals at Oak Ridge, TN, Richland, WA and Los Alamos, NM, supervise medical research, and develop protocols for the dangerous materials handled at each of these sites. Later he was responsible for the safety aspects of the Trinity nuclear tests, developing a system of strategically placed Geiger counters to monitor the fallout radiation after the blast.

This first manuscript is a diary of Warren's experiences during the period leading up to, during, and after the test. The diary opens on July 11 with Colonel Warren's arrival in NM: "exceedingly barren country, tremendous areas of abandoned country and very few roads."
7/12/45 "Long discussions on weather with Holzman & Hubbard & Ryan. Concept has been changed. May shoot 7/16 instead of 7/15 ... 7/14/45 "Arrangements made to evac. Any personas after 15 r/hr / Capt Allen will record courses & height & speed & Warren will receive same data for relay to Hoffman & Friedell."


The actual test day reads:

"7/16/45
0330—May shoot at 0400
0345—postponed until 0515 / plane says weather bad...
0400—decided 0530 zero hour.
0500—contacted "Joe 52" Hoffman at gate 2 guard & Maj Palmer & all members. Troops camped behind Campania Hills. Visitors collected on SE slope of hills...
0510 Lerner & Rossmore in position for sirens. Capt Allen to give "time" from radio for -5 & minus 2 & those left in shock to lay on ground outside at minus 2....
0525 Here we go
0528
0530 Could hear radio loudspeaker count off minus 1 ... Everybody in slot trench face down a few sat up near wind mill ... A brilliant yellow brown light occurred a few seconds after zero over radio then a sensation of heat over body ... then a peculiar ringing in ears & a squeeze in mastoids and middle ear before sound of blast heard. Turned over & looked through glass at zero intense to see ball on ground still very bright. Removed glasses & saw it rising slowly
Abt 0530 ½ -531 false dawn
Ball or mushroom rose slowly & majestically & ponderously but brilliantly—bright red purple with blue rain for a few seconds. It towered up with streamers falling vertically in the stem & out of the cap. Did not hesitate at expected 20,000 ft ... kept on going prob. 30000 ft. 34000...
Abt 0525 looked again from barracks over semi darkness cloudy sky—pillar through clouds with mass at top very high small white cloud on right to. Seems to be growing to right & upward like a brilliant white cumulous cloud. Rest of top rather flat & extending laterally in all directions. Whole column seems to tower over camp & whole site...."
Present also are manuscript notes submitted by his junior officers, including Hoffman, Louis Fields, and J.O. Palmer.

1. Autograph Manuscript, draft of a memo to Maj. Gen. Groves, "The use of the gadget as a Tactical Weapon—based on observations made during Test II," 6 pp, 4to, [White Plains], July 25, 1945, synthesizing the information from the Trinity test for the use of nuclear weapons going forward, on onionskin memo paper, with hand-drawn chart on p 6, some thumbing and toning overall, 3 holes punched to all leaves, upper margins rough.

In part: "1) A great deal of the energy of Test II was wasted in vaporizing the steel tower & hundreds of tons of sand, glazing the sand etc as a result of detonating it at the low elevation of 100 ft. Even so the observed destructive range was great i.e. probably a radius of over one mile.
2)The large part of the opacity of the cloud & its column was made up of dust which was sucked up with the rising hot material by the hundreds of tons from long distance probably having the radius ...
3) If the detonation altitude is raised to 2000 ft for more effective use of the blast, the ball of fire or cloud will probably start to rise wit out the high billows of smoke and dust noted in Test II ...
5) Since any airplane flying near a recent detonation will have difficulty in locating the cloud of active material in the air unless they carry detection instruments, all planes should avoid flying over or down wind of such an area for at least 3 hours after detonation ...
7) Detonation at approximately 2000 feet will spread the active material in all directions. That part directed toward the ground will be spread over a larger area than the area of activity at the base of the column in Test II."



2. Autograph Manuscript Signed ("Col. Stafford L. Warren"), draft of "Report on Test II at Trinity 16 July 1944[sic], 6 pp recto and verso, 8vo, Santa Fe, NM, c. July 21, 1945, on "Army Service Forces / United States Engineer Office / P.O. Box 1539" onionskin letterhead; together with Typed Manuscript with Annotations, a later draft of the same report edited by Warren, 5 pp, 4to [NM], July 21, 1945, three holes punched at margins, mild toning. AND WITH: 10 pp of notes, maps and charts in pencil, preliminary material used to prepare the report.

In part: "17) It is this officer's opinion based on the damage to "Jumbo" ... the extent of the glazed sand area ... the extent of the cleaned off area (1 mile) ... that this explosion was a great many times more violent than the 100 ton test. "Conservative" estimates by the scientific group put it at least equivalent to 10000 tons of T.N.T ... 16 ) The monitors all took considerable risks knowingly and many received exposures of considerable (8r) although still safe magnitudes. They should not be exposed to more radiation within the next months. ... 20) It is this officer's opinion that this site is too small for a repetition of a similar test of this magnitude except under very special conditions. It is recommended that the site be expanded or a larger one preferably with a radius of at least 150 miles without population be obtained if this test is to be repeated...."
WITH: a folder of approximately 62 pp of manuscript notes, maps and graphs dating before, during and after the test as well as preliminary interoffice communications (July 15, 1945), containing instructions for personnel at time of blast.
AND WITH: a group of maps, including "Probable spread by end of third day." Hand drawn chart on graph paper, in graphite and color pencil, signed "SLW" and dated July 20, 1945, clearly delineating the spread of radiation from July 16, 17, 18 and 19.

Contacts
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.
TRINITY PROJECT: STAFFORD L. WARREN.
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