Dai Xi (1801-1860)  Little Resting Cloud Hut, 1849

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Lot 2
Dai Xi (1801-1860)
Little Resting Cloud Hut, 1849

Sold for HK$ 1,813,125 (US$ 231,056) inc. premium
張穆一生充滿哀痛坎坷,十一歲失恃,十四歲失怙,十九歲而喪繼母,二十六歲二兄早逝,三十四歲髮妻病亡,三十五歲又遭禁考。道光二十八年(1848)二月,四十四歲的張穆又迭遭厄運。時京師瘟疫流行,九日之間,妻子雙亡,「十年營冓之巢,一日迅掃空之,人非木石,其誰堪比」。六月,三兄麗暹亦歿,張穆痛呼「「穆何辜於天」!歸耕田園之思益切,他請吳儁作〈煙雨歸耕圖〉(祁叔穎跋云見於石州遺物,或即為現藏山西博物院卷),畫中石州衣簑戴笠,芒鞋鋤禾,意態恬然自適。十月,張穆作《小棲雲亭記》,擬於其卜居之京北靁家橋築「小棲雲」亭,「雨眺晴耕,徜徉終老」,並倩好友戴醇士寫〈小棲雲亭圖〉,誰料「甫裝成卷,輒為偷兒持去,捕之累月不獲」,而「追懷妙墨,難遂忘情」,於是再賦詩索畫,次年春,鹿牀寫成本卷〈小棲雲亭第二圖〉以贈。

祁叔穎跋云本卷乃鹿牀「極得意之筆,自謂勝於初本」,二稿勝於初稿,原是合情合理,況鹿牀與石州交誼匪淺,又兼此時鹿牀亦謀致仕,感同身受,豈不全力以赴哉!畫面以幾近滿幅的全景式構圖,寫崇山峻嶺,雲氣蒸騰,繁林茂樹間,「小棲雲亭」臨水而建,石州獨於亭中怡然趺坐,獨與天地精神往來。佈局開闔宏闊,取意荊、關;復以披麻皴輔以渴筆淡墨,得董、巨平淡天真之味,若視為鹿牀中年傑作,當不為過。

此卷寫成數月後,鹿牀吿老歸邑,返杭州主講崇文書院,故叔穎八月既望跋有「今鹿翁將南歸,此畫尤難得矣」句,古時舟車不便,一別參與商,怎不令人感傷。卷後叔穎凡四跋,第一跋乃知交三人俱在京城,詩文唱和,何其融融。而再見此卷,忽忽十二載已逝,石州墓木已拱,而鹿牀則剛殉難於太平之亂。天人永訣,展卷能不惘然乎!

張穆與祁寯藻乃姻親,其三兄麗暹妻叔穎之妹,張祁雖相差十二歲,但因志趣相投,亦師亦友,交情篤厚。石州身後,叔穎整理其所遺書稿,刊行多部,《蒙古遊牧記》即其一,序曰「著述卓然不朽者,厥有二端:陳古義之書,則貴乎實事求是;論古今之書,則貴科經世之用。二者不可兼得,而張石州《蒙古遊牧記》獨能兼之。」

石州所藏,大半散佚,任槐庭之後,此卷曾為詩夢齋葉鶴伏珍藏。吳慶坻(1848-1924)《蕉廊脞錄》中錄有此卷,未知是其所藏抑或其經眼者,吳氏以鹿牀「筆下無塵俗」甚為看重,《蕉廊脞錄》第七卷「書畫」篇錄歷代書畫共四十條,戴熙即佔其五。

附題跋者簡介如下:
祁寯藻(1793-1866)字叔穎,一字淳甫,號春圃、息翁,晚號䜱䜪亭叟。山西壽陽人。嘉慶十九年(1814)進士,由庶吉士授編修。道光七年(1827)至十三年(1833)累官文淵閣校理、翰林院侍講學士、內閣學士兼禮部侍郎,道光二十年(1840)授兵部尚書,越九年值上書房總師傅,繼為體仁閣大學士、首席軍機大臣,並加賞太子太保銜。同治元年(1859),以大學士銜補禮部尚書,侍讀弘德殿。卒於北京,諡文端。祁氏精儒學、訓詁,善詩賦,為道、咸、同三代帝師。其書法由小篆入真行,師承二王,出顏柳,參以山谷,渾厚遒健,自成一格,「一時之最,人共寶之」。

馮志沂(1814-1876),字魯川,號柏泉。山西代州(今代縣)人。道光十六年(1836)進士,年二十三歲,授刑部主事,累官安徽廬州府知府、安徽按察使。為官清廉剛正,禮賢課士,為曾國藩所器重。從桐城派梅曾亮遊。工詩文,藏書頗豐,與張穆交誼篤厚,曾比鄰而居。傳世有《微尚齋詩文集》、《西隃山房集》、《微尚齋遺文》等。

端木埰(1815-1887),字子疇。江蘇江寧(今南京)人。道光二十九年(1849)優貢,得祁寯藻薦於朝,授內閣中書,後擢至侍讀。性兀傲。喜經史、善詩工書,善小楷,尤擅倚聲,嘗與人結聽松詞社。編著有《宋詞賞心錄》、《碧瀣詞》、《楚辭啟蒙》等。

葉詩夢(1863-1937),姓葉赫那拉,名佛尼音布。父瑞麟,曾任兩廣總督。北京人。民國後更名葉潛,字鶴伏,又字荷汀,號詩夢居士,又號師孟。清末民初著名琴家。琴從祝安伯、孫晉齋、李湘石、黃勉之等名家,能融匯諸派。弟子有楊時百、高羅佩、汪孟舒等。善書法,精於武術,亦通岐黃,頗具聲名。好收藏,曾有「崑山玉」、「九霄環珮」、「風入松」、「鳴玉」、「歸鳳」、「霹靂」六張古琴珍品。其中「九霄環珮」,現藏於北京故宮,乃公認唐代雷琴名品。編著有《詩夢齋琴譜》、《詩夢齋詩文集》、《詩夢齋日記》、《醫藥雜錄》等。
Dai Xi (1801-1860)
Little Resting Cloud Hut, 1849
Horizontal handscroll, ink on paper, titled by the artist in seal script, dedicated to Zhang Mu (1805-1849), and signed Qiantang Dai Xi, with three artist's seals reading Dai Xi, Chunshi and Chushi Jiafeng, and with two collector's seals of Ye Hefu (1863-1937) on the painting; titleslip by Ye Hefu, dated bingshen (1896); a frontispiece in clerical script by He Shaoji (1799-1873), with one seal of his; three inscriptions written by the recipient Zhang Mu, the first dated the 28th year of the Daoguang reign (1848) and the last dated jiyou (1849), and with a total of nine collector's seals of his; two further inscriptions by the artist, dated the 28th year of the Daoguang reign (1848), and with four seals of his; followed by a further seven colophons: one by Ye Hefu, with another five collector's seals of his; four by Qi Junzao (1793-1866), the first two dated the 29th year of the Daoguang reign (1849) and xinyou and the 11th year of Xianfeng reign (1861), and with a total of five seals of his; one by Feng Zhiyi (1814-1867), dated jiyou (1849), and with one seal of his; and one by Duanmu Cai (19th century), dated renxu (1862), and with one seal of his.
Frontispiece: 31.1 x 97.2cm (12 1/4 x 38 1/4in)
Painting: 31.1 x 97.8cm (12 1/4 x 38 1/2in)
Colophon: 31.1 x 405.1cm (12 1/4 x 159 1/2in)

Footnotes

  • Exhibited:
    New Songs on Ancient Tunes, Honolulu Museum of Art, Honolulu, HI, August 30-October 28, 2007

    Published:
    Teisuke Toda and Hiromitsu Ogawa comp., Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Paintings, Third Series, Volume 1: American and Canadian Collections, University of Tokyo Press, 2013, A50-024, pp.188-189

    Little, Stephen, and J. May Lee Barrett, New Songs on Ancient Tunes: 19th-20th Century Chinese Paintings and Calligraphy from the Richard Fabian Collection, Honolulu: Honolulu Museum of Art, 2007, pp.100-103

    Wu Qingchi, Jiaolang cuo lu: Volume 7, Zhonghua Shu Ju, Beijing, 2008, p.215

    Provenance:
    Far East Fine Arts, San Francisco, California
    Christie's Hong Kong, Fine Classical Paintings and Calligraphy, 29 April 2001, lot 403

    戴熙 小棲雲亭第二圖 水墨紙本 手卷 一八四九年作
    葉鶴伏題簽條 
    何紹基題引首 
    張穆、葉鶴伏、戴熙、祁寯藻、馮志沂及端木埰題跋

    簽條:
    小棲雲第二圖。丙申(1896)正月,詩夢題簽。

    引首:
    小棲雲亭第二圖。石舟同年屬題。何紹基。鈐印:紹基印

    款識:
    小棲雲亭第二圖。平定張石舟屬。錢塘戴熙畫。

    題跋:
    (一)小棲雲亭記。余家陽泉山莊為金棲雲道院,元遺山詩所謂「開窗納山影,推枕得溪聲」者是也。有亭翼然,高出林杪,浙人張君世犖榜曰「臥雲」。先大夫及余兄弟皆嘗讀書於此,每欲易「臥」為「棲」,用備掌故,以先世舊題,未敢輒更也。茲余卜兆京北靁家橋宜丁阜,地隸昌平,以圖經考之,其西北七十餘里,則金章宗之駐蹕山也。山陽有棲雲嘯臺,章宗嘗築亭於其上,兩地嘉名適相結冓。而此間峰聯遼碣,流帶玉泉,山影溪聲,較之鄉郡一隅,規模為闊遠矣。因擬它日結茅墓田之旁,顏曰「小棲雲」,雨眺晴耕,徜徉終老,余之願詎有侈於是者哉?書此為劵,並繫以詩:野亭築得小棲雲,種黍無錢亦可欣。[香山詩云「欲作棲雲計,須營種黍錢」]蓑笠喜酬西塞願[頃余作「煙雨歸耕圖」]松蘿看勒北山文。翠屏畫影欄前涌,玉瀑琴聲枕上聞。依舊吾家好春色[陽泉春色,平定八景之一]觴花吟竹問誰群。道光廿八年(1848)十月立冬日,殷齋居士張穆記。
    (二)詩夢居士珍藏。
    (三)戊申(1848)十月,鹿牀侍郎為余寫〈小棲雲亭圖〉,並和拙詩,甫裝成卷,輒為偷兒持去,捕之累月不獲。追懷妙墨,難遂忘情。因擬請為寫第二圖,以詩先之,五疊子貞同年瓦壽軒詩韻,知必一笑許我也。(詳詩不錄)己酉(1849)二月初八日作,三月初十日書。
    (四)去歲張石翁索畫〈小棲雲亭〉矮卷,旋失去。今春復以詩來索第二圖,畫成輒和其詩。(詳詩不錄)道光二十九年(1849)三月上己纔過,錄乞哂正,錢塘戴熙鹿牀居士小草。
    附錄第一圖題跋。劫後餘生付白雲,山亭坦腹自欣欣。幽棲不負山林興,避俗仍攜冰雪文。道院精盧成往蹟,嘯臺遺址訪多聞,他時過問宜丁阜,應見添丁迥出群。張石舟卜兆昌平宜丁阜,擬築小棲雲亭為棲隱計,錢塘戴熙為之圖,並和其劵隱詩,時戊申(1848)暢月。
    (五)(詳詩不錄)小棲雲亭第二圖,鹿牀侍郎極得意之筆,自謂勝於初本。今鹿翁將南歸,此畫尤難得矣。讀石舟四弟詩序,令人有喬木故鄉之感,次和一章,聊當招隱。時道光二十有九年(1849)八月既望,壽陽祁寯藻並記。
    (六)(詳詩不錄)己酉(1849)九月奉題〈小棲雲亭第二圖〉,請石翁仁兄教定,弟馮志沂。
    (七)任槐庭司馬以殷齋此圖見示,重覩煙雲,如逢舊雨,不勝今昔之感。余題後兩月即奉使蘭州,明年春還都,石翁已作古人,今鹿牀侍郎亦殉杭城之難,故交筆墨詹仰如神。子貞太史還楚南,魯川淹留京國,天各一方,襄病餘生,歸老山中。展卷之餘,能不惘然。䜱䜪亭六十九叟寯藻重觀並記,歲在辛酉(1861)八月十八日,咸豐十有一年也。
    (八)丙辰(1856)之歲十一月,張氏妹攜七歲姪女招姑來都,蓋石州先生遺腹女也。其生母亦亡,女聰慧,有父風,感嘆成詩。(詳詩不錄)石翁繼配趙孺人有男曰蘭官,五六歲能誦毛詩、爾雅、弟子職、急就諸篇,孺人卒,以念母哀毀而殤。石翁既逝,以兄子孝瞻嗣之,吾甥也,奉匶歸葬陽泉山莊。其昌平墓田已售它人,招姑蓋取魂兮歸來之意也。其兩妾先後以矢節歾。生平著書已刊者顧亭林、閻潛邱兩先生年譜、《殷齋文詩集》,續刊未就者則《蒙古游牧記》、《魏延昌地形志》,二書卷帙繁重,何願船校補未竟,亦作古人。《地形志目錄》一冊尚在願翁家,其餘稿本余為收存,幸無散失。《游牧記》已刊至十三、四卷,患難遷徙,未遑訖工。今衰病日甚,不知能完此願否?附記於此,以俟世之知石翁者,理而董之,䜱䜪七十翁再跋。
    (九)槐庭慶三與余同里,好書畫,曾刻顏魯公帖,乃道州何子貞太史家藏,石州手摹本也。殷齋所藏卷軸,大半散逸,余族孫履坦,亦收得數種,〈煙雨歸耕圖〉似在其中。又古硯三方,其一則晉府龜研,同人多題詠者,石州捐館時,余適奉使未還,子貞亦出都,檢點者無暇緘棄,殊可惜也。此卷戴侍郎畫尤可寶重。余藏戴畫三卷。一憶松,二雙橋精舍,三則侍郎高隱後所題寄者。武林再遭兵燹,鹿牀遺墨流落人間,更不知凡幾。世間神物,必當有呵護之者。寯藻又記。
    (十)(詳詩不錄)壬戌(1862)季冬上澣古建康端木埰。

    鈐印:(戴)戴熙、醇士、處士家風、戴熙、鹿牀詩畫、習苦、何必見戴
    (何)紹基印
    藏印:(張)石艾張穆、小棲雲亭、靖陽亭、陽泉山莊、殷齋居士、靖陽亭長、張穆印信、小棲雲亭、海闊天空氣象光風霽月唫懷
    (祁)叔穎手稿、息翁、祁寯藻印、䜱䜪亭叟、再覺道人
    (馮)魯川初槁
    (端)端木埰印
    (葉)漪園詩夢齋珍藏書畫印、由我寶之、荷汀、佛尼音布、葉赫那拉氏、詩夢齋珍藏印、詩夢齋收藏書畫印

    展覽:
    《古調新歌:費立哲神父珍藏十九及二十世紀中國書畫》,檀香山藝術博物館,夏威夷,2007年8月30日至10月28日

    出版:
    戶田禎佑、小川裕充,《中國繪畫總合圖錄》三編,第一卷,東京大學出版會,東京,2013年,A50-024,頁188-189

    Little, Stephen, J. May Lee Barrett,《古調新歌:費立哲神父珍藏十九及二十世紀中國書畫》,檀香山藝術博物館,夏威夷,2007年,頁100-103

    (清)吳慶坻,《蕉廊脞錄》卷七,中華書局,北京,2008年,頁215

    來源:
    美國加州舊金山遠東藝術中心
    佳士得香港,《中國古代書畫》,2001年4月29日,拍品編號403

    上款:張穆(1805-1849),初名瀛暹,字蓬仙、誦風,號石舟、殷齋,一字石州,又字碩州,晚號靖陽亭長。山西平定人。理學家、西北邊陲地理及蒙古史家。道光十一年(1831),考取優貢生。結識回鄉省親的道光帝講官祁寯藻。次年考取正白旗漢教習,與何紹基、苗夔同年。道光十九年(1839)順天鄉試因「誤犯場規」被嚴懲,自此絕意仕進,僑居京城宣武城南,閉門著書,肆力於古。祁寯藻《殷齋文集》序謂其「為人豪放明銳,極深研幾。於經通孔氏微言大義,精訓詁篆籀;於史通天文、算術及地理之學;議論穿穴今昔,熔冶四庫百氏,飚舉泉涌,座客率撟舌不得語」。學問之外,張穆書法出顏魯公,篆、籀、小楷皆極古穆,亦擅畫工詩。傳世著作有《蒙古遊牧記》、《魏延昌地形志》、《顧亭林年譜》、《閻潛邱年譜》、《殷齋詩文集》等。
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Dai Xi (1801-1860)  Little Resting Cloud Hut, 1849
Dai Xi (1801-1860)  Little Resting Cloud Hut, 1849
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