An Imperial blue-glazed altar vessel and cover for the Temple of Heaven, dou Qianlong seal marks and of the period  (2)

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Lot 7
An Imperial blue-glazed altar vessel and cover for the Temple of Heaven, dou
Qianlong seal marks and of the period

Sold for HK$ 325,000 (US$ 41,934) inc. premium
The Property of a Gentleman 紳士藏品
An Imperial blue-glazed altar vessel and cover for the Temple of Heaven, dou
Qianlong seal marks and of the period
The stem bowl raised on a high splayed hollow foot, moulded with decorative bands around the sides, the domed cover decorated with overlapping wave bands, surmounted by a pair of rope-twist handles, covered overall with a rich lustrous glaze of deep violet-blue.
27cm (10 1/2in) high (2).

Footnotes

  • 清乾隆 霽藍釉豆 「大清乾隆年製」篆書款

    Provenance 來源:
    Lieutenant-Colonel T.S.Cox and thence by descent

    T.S.Cox中校舊藏,後由其家族繼承

    Lieutenant-Colonel T.S.Cox time in China 1900 – 1902
    T.S.Cox中校1900至1902年在華期間

    Lieutenant-Colonel T.S.Cox graduated from Sandhurst Military Academy in 1892 and was commissioned in 1894 in the 16th Indian Cavalry, The Bengal Lancers. His noteworthy military service included in 1897, Tochi Field Force, N.W. Frontier; and in 1900, the China Expeditionary Force during the Boxer Rebellion, when he was awarded the US Military Order of the Dragon. In 1901 he was seconded as the Advisor to the Chinese Government and awarded an Imperial decoration by Shanqi, Prince Su (1866-1922). In 1903 he was elected to the Royal Geographical Society. In 1903 he served as Captain in the Indian Army; between 1904–1907, he was posted in the D.M.O. War Office, London, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Somaliland, Abyssinia, Russian central Asia, and Ottoman Middle East; in 1911 he was awarded the King George V Delhi Coronation Durbar medal. Between 1912-1913 he was posted in the Middle East and Central Asia. In 1915, he took part in the Gallipoli Campaign and in 1916 transferred to command the 37th Dogras. In 1917 he served in the Mesopotamian campaign and was wounded whilst serving in the Aden Field Force. In 1920 he served with the Waziristan Field Force, NW Frontier; in 1921 he transferred to command the 3rd Madras Regiment and in 1925 retired from the Indian Army as Lieutenant-Colonel.

    July 1900: Cox was ordered to North China to join China Expeditionary Force to relieve the siege of the Beijing International Legation Area by Chinese 'Boxers'. Collected a troop of 16th Bengal Lancers in Hong Kong on August 15 1900 and disembarked at Sinho for Tianjin on September 11. Advanced on Beijing September/October 1900. Subsequently placed in charge of a 'Flying Column' sent to capture Boxer leaders at Baoding, a hundred miles south-west of Beijing. Campaign medal, and learned to speak Chinese. Passed 6-day Chinese language examination.

    January - June 1901 worked for the British Military Commander, General Sir Alfred Gaselee, and awarded Military Order of the Dragon in April. July 1901 promoted Staff Captain and seconded to raise and train a Battalion of Chinese Railway Police, whose task was to guard the Beijing, Tongshan, and Tianjin districts for the British High Command, stationed at the Temple of Heaven in Beijing.

    January 1 – December 25 1902 Cox was the Officer Commanding Railway Police, Chinese Imperial Railways, most of this time under contract to the Chinese Imperial Government. In addition to this role, from June 1 to December 1902 he was 'Confidential Adviser' to His Imperial Highness Prince Su, Governor of Beijing (the Emperors uncle), and from August 15 to December 1902 also 'Confidential Adviser' to His Imperial Highness Prince Qing, Head of Chinese Octroi (Customs) Department. Cox received a Letter of Appreciation and was awarded a Chinese Imperial Decoration for his services. He left Beijing for India on December 25 1902.

    T.S.Cox中校1892年畢業於桑德赫斯特皇家軍事學院,1894年加入印度騎兵團第十六團,1897年參加巴基斯坦奇山戰役,駐守西北前線。1900年,入華參與鎮壓義和團運動,1901年受命於清政府並受到肅親王嘉獎,1903年被選入皇家地理協會。1903年受命為英屬印度軍指揮官。1904至1907年間,曾被派駐倫敦、巴爾幹半島地區、安納托利亞地區、索馬裡闌地區、阿比西尼亞、俄羅斯、土耳其地區等等。1911年,被授予喬治王五世德里杜爾巴勳章。1912年至1913年間,又被派駐中東及中亞地區。1915年,參加第一次世界大戰的加里波利之戰,並於1916年調遣指揮第37軍團。1917年,參加美索不達米亞戰役時受傷。1920年參加窩茲日斯坦戰役。1921年調遣指揮英屬印度陸軍第三軍團,最後於1925年正式退伍。

    1900年7月:被派入華解救受到義和團圍攻的北京使館區。於1900年8月15日從香港帶領英屬印度騎兵團第十六團出發前往天津,於9月11日登岸,次月抵達北京,並受命指揮衝擊隊於京城西南處追拿義和團首領。當年榮獲勳章,並學習中文。

    1901年1月至6月效命於英軍司令阿弗萊德將軍,並於同年四月獲得勳章。1901年7月被升任為副司令,負責訓練在華的鐵路守道軍,任務是保護英國公使在北京的安全。

    1902年1月1日至12月25日,被清廷任命為鐵路守道軍總指揮,期間與清政府有密切往來。1902年6月1日至12月,被肅親王秘任為貼身顧問,並在同年8月15日至12月被慶親王密任為貼身顧問。期間多次受到清廷的嘉獎,最後於1902年12月25日離京返回印度。

    The blue glazed dou would have been part of a set of ritual food and wine vessels used in Qing state rituals in the Temple of Heaven, the Tiantan, where the emperor made offerings to heaven at the Qigutan, or Altar for Bountiful Harvest, during the first lunar month of the year. Although the colour coding for the four main altars was instituted in 1530, it was only during the Qianlong reign in 1748 that archaistic shapes were designed by Imperial decree, with the objects illustrated and described in The Illustrated Regulations for Ceremonial Paraphernalia of the Qing Dynasty. The Qianlong emperor decreed that fashioning ritual vessels in conventional forms was inconsistent with ancient practice and that the shape ought to reflect antiquity. In accordance, the dou, is similar in form to archaic bronze vessels dating to the Zhou dynasty; see three examples of dou vessels dated to the Eastern Zhou dynasty, illustrated in Zhongguo qingtongqi quanji. Vol.10. Dongzhou 4, Beijing, 2006, pls.31-33.

    As the Son of Heaven, the emperor mediated between heaven and earth. His secluded existence in the Imperial Palaces was punctuated by performances of solemn ceremonies set according to the agricultural seasons. The correct observance of these ceremonies was considered vital to preserving the order of the universe, securing peace and prosperity. The traditional form and highly ritualised use of these vessels reflected the concerns for the stability and continuity of the Qing.

    Compare a similar blue-glazed dou and cover, Qianlong mark and period, in the Shenyang Imperial Palace Museum, illustrated in The Prime Cultural Relics Collected By Shenyang Imperial Palace Museum: The Chinaware Volume. The Second Part, Shenyang, 2007, p.249, pl.10. Three other related examples of dou vessels, Qianlong mark and period, are in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (accession nos. FE.94&A-1970, FE.96&A-1970 and C.17-1957).

    See an Imperial blue-glazed altar set for the Temple of Heaven, comprising a fu and cover and a pair of dou and covers, Qianlong seal mark and of the period, sold in our London rooms on 14 May 2015, lot 160.

    此器為一組三件供器之一,按照古代成規,皇帝每年孟春正月上旬要親臨祈谷壇舉行祈谷禮,為百谷求雨,祈求風調雨順,五穀豐登;在冬至日要到天壇祭天,拜謝皇天上帝。歷代王朝都有全套的祭祀制度,包括對祭器的使用規定,而不同的祭祀活動和祭祀中的不同方位須配用不同的顏色釉瓷祭器,甚為講究。乾隆十三年,霽藍釉瓷祭器被定為農曆正月帝王到天壇和祈谷壇祭天和祈谷的祭祀用具。

    此霽藍釉豆為模仿東周青銅器造型而製。東周時期的青銅豆例子可參閱《中國青銅器全集10:東周4》,北京,2006年,圖版31-33。

    瀋陽故宮博物院藏一件類似的清乾隆霽藍釉豆,見《瀋陽故宮博物院院藏文物精粹:陶瓷卷下》,瀋陽,2007年,頁249,圖10;倫敦維多利亞和阿伯特博物館藏三件清乾隆霽藍釉豆,亦可作參考。(博物館編號FE.94&A-1970,FE.96&A-1970以及C.17-1957)。倫敦邦瀚斯曾售出清乾隆霽藍釉供器一套,其中包括一件簠及兩件豆,2015年5月14日,拍品160。
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An Imperial blue-glazed altar vessel and cover for the Temple of Heaven, dou Qianlong seal marks and of the period  (2)
An Imperial blue-glazed altar vessel and cover for the Temple of Heaven, dou Qianlong seal marks and of the period  (2)
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