Sherbrooke is an important figure in the history of Canada and, in particular, of Nova Scotia of which he was lieutenant governor before his appointment as Canada's Governor General between 1816–1818. He was a leading figure in the defence of Nova Scotia in the American War of Independence and in 1814 led a successful attack on what is now Maine. Despite his reputation as a soldier with a short fuse he worked determinedly to end factionalism in Canada and to unify the French and English populations. In this he was largely successful. Sherbrooke's papers included several maps made specifically for him which had never previously been made available to scholars and researchers. Very unusually the wooden chests, emblazoned with Sherbrooke's name and coat of arms, in which the maps were kept have survived and provide a great sense of immediacy. Fittingly the papers were bought by Canada's National Archive.