A COPPER ALLOY SHRINE TO RISHABANATHA JHARKHAND OR BIHAR, PALA PERIOD, 9TH CENTURY
Lot 15
A COPPER ALLOY SHRINE TO RISHABANATHA
JHARKHAND OR BIHAR, PALA PERIOD, 9TH CENTURY
Sold for HK$ 1,250,000 (US$ 159,880) inc. premium

Lot Details
A COPPER ALLOY SHRINE TO RISHABANATHA JHARKHAND OR BIHAR, PALA PERIOD, 9TH CENTURY A COPPER ALLOY SHRINE TO RISHABANATHA JHARKHAND OR BIHAR, PALA PERIOD, 9TH CENTURY
A COPPER ALLOY SHRINE TO RISHABANATHA
JHARKHAND OR BIHAR, PALA PERIOD, 9TH CENTURY
The reverse with a single line inscription in Proto-Bengali script identifying the donor, 'Sadhuka'.
19.4 cm (7 5/8 in.) high

Footnotes

  • The bronze has a tremendous pedigree, having passed between the two most important private collections of Jain art in America: The Jina Collection, formed over decades until 2001, and the Siddharth K. Bhansali Collection, formed between the 1970s to the present day.

    Of the bronze, Dr. Pratapaditya Pal elegantly writes:

    "One of the most elaborate of the ensembles to have survived from eastern India, the sculpture is a lively composition with Rishabhanatha as the central Jina...In contrast to his unwavering meditative stance, two lively attendant flywhisk bearers in swaying postures fan him on either side...The two seated divine acolytes on either side...symbolize prosperity and wellbeing, the male on the Jina's right by his robust body and the other a female with a child. Both the sects of Jainism identify the yaksha and yakshi attendants of Rishabha as Gomukha and Chakreshvari, but the figures here are clearly Sarvanubhuti and Ambika. As Shah has discussed, in the 9th century and earlier, in western India as well, the Jina is associated with Sarvanubhuti and Ambika.

    "Regal symbolism is now grafted to the imagery not only by the flywhisk bearers, but also by seating the Jina on a lion throne with two whimsical, stylized animals added in the front. The crossbar of the throneback carries a halo with a flame fringe supported inside by a central stem with two branches ending in leaves, as if to symbolize a wish-fulfilling tree, even as they serve a utilitarian purpose securing the nimbus. The same motif is repeated below as attachments for the Jina's figure. Both the form of the aureole and this particular design element are encountered in Buddhist bronzes from Nalanda...which could have been a stylistic source for the atelier that produced this handsome ensemble. The inscription at the back provides the name of the donor as Sadhuka, while the paleography of the script corroborates a 9th-century date."

    Published
    Frederick Schultz & Peter Marks, The Jina Collection, New York, 2001, no.5.
    Phyllis Granoff (ed.), Victorious Ones: Jain Images of Perfection, New York, 2009, p.192, no.S17.
    Pratapaditya Pal, The Elegant Image: Bronzes from the Indian Subcontinent in the Siddharth K. Bhansali Collection, New Orleans, 2011, p.68, no.30

    Provenance
    The Jina Collection
    On loan to the Freer Gallery of Art, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 8 July 1991 - 12 September 2000
    Frederick Schultz & Peter Marks Gallery, 2001
    Siddharth K. Bhansali Collection, acquired from the above


    勒舍婆那陀銅像
    賈坎德邦或比哈爾邦,帕拉時期,九世紀

    銅像後端刻有一行古孟加拉语銘文,識別捐助者為「Sadhuka」。
    高19.4釐米 (7 5/8英吋)

    1,000,000 - 1,500,000 港元

    此尊銅像傳承自兩個美國最重要的耆那藝術私人收藏:"耆那珍藏"(The Jina Collection),活躍數十年直至2001年;以及Siddharth K. Bhansali私人珍藏, 始於70年代,活躍至今。

    Pal博士曾如此優雅地描述此尊造像:

    「此件作品設計精心,細節豐富,在東印度流傳下來的造像之中實屬上乘。其以勒舍婆那陀為主像,構圖無比生動⋯⋯主尊兩旁隨從手持拂塵,姿態優雅富於動感,與靜坐冥想中的勒舍婆那陀形成鮮明對比⋯⋯中心人物下方盤坐兩位侍僧,象徵著繁盛與福祉,男性於耆那身右,女性與孩童於其身左。 耆那教兩派別都認為勒舍婆那陀兩旁之藥叉與藥叉女為Gomukha和Chakreshvari,但此尊銅像組合中的人物顯然是Sarvanubhuti和Ambika。 正如Shah所述,9世紀以前,無論在印度東部或西部,耆那皆與Sarvanubhuti和Ambika時有相關。」

    「此尊銅像不僅以手持拂塵隨從襯托出耆那之王者形象,其身下之雄獅寶座及寶座前的兩尊奇獸皆有相似寓意。寶座後方攜有焰緣的背光環,光環中央由楹支撐兩分枝,彷彿象徵一棵祈願樹,而實則作為背光的結構性支撐,相同的藤蔓設計也重複於下方耆那兩側。此種背光風格與結構設計均可見於那爛陀造像,由此可推測這件作品的創作靈感可能來自那爛陀。銅像背面的銘文指出捐助者名為Sadhuka, 銘文書體體現九世紀的時代特徵。」

    著錄
    Frederick Schultz 與 Peter Marks ,The Jina Collection,紐約, 2001年, 5號。
    Phyllis Granoff (編),Victorious Ones: Jain Images of Perfection ,紐約, 2009年,頁192, S17號。
    Pratapaditya Pal,The Elegant Image: Bronzes from the Indian Subcontinent in the Siddharth K. Bhansali Collection,新奧爾良, 2011年,頁68, 30號。

    來源
    耆那珍藏(The Jina Collection)
    出借於弗瑞爾美術館,亞瑟·M·賽克勒美術館,史密森學會,華盛頓,1991年7月8日— 2000年9月12日。
    Frederick Schultz & Peter Marks Gallery, 2001年
    Siddharth K. Bhansali私人珍藏, 於上述收藏購入
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