THE CAUSES AND NECESSITIES OF TAKING UP ARMS. [CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.] A Declaration by the Representatives of the United Colonies of North-America, now met in General Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the Causes and Necessity of their Taking Up Arms ... July 6th, 1775. [Portsmouth, N.H.]: Sold at the printing-office in Portsmouth [by Daniel Fowle, 1775].
Lot 63
THE CAUSES AND NECESSITIES OF TAKING UP ARMS.
[CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.]
A Declaration by the Representatives of the United Colonies of North-America, now met in General Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the Causes and Necessity of their Taking Up Arms ... July 6th, 1775. [Portsmouth, N.H.]: Sold at the printing-office in Portsmouth [by Daniel Fowle, 1775].
Sold for US$ 22,500 inc. premium

Lot Details
THE CAUSES AND NECESSITIES OF TAKING UP ARMS. [CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.] A Declaration by the Representatives of the United Colonies of North-America, now met in General Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the Causes and Necessity of their Taking Up Arms ... July 6th, 1775. [Portsmouth, N.H.]: Sold at the printing-office in Portsmouth [by Daniel Fowle, 1775].
THE CAUSES AND NECESSITIES OF TAKING UP ARMS.
[CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.] A Declaration by the Representatives of the United Colonies of North-America, now met in General Congress at Philadelphia, setting forth the Causes and Necessity of their Taking Up Arms ... July 6th, 1775. [Portsmouth, N.H.]: Sold at the printing-office in Portsmouth [by Daniel Fowle, 1775].
Printed broadsheet, 444 x 288 mm. Printed recto and verso in two columns, with a 70 x 108 mm woodcut titled "View of that great and flourishing City of Boston, when in its purity, and out of the hands of the Philistines" by J. Turner, signed in type by JOHN HANCOCK. Tiny holes at some fold intersections with loss to a few letters, few old paper repairs to verso on blank areas; still excellent and untrimmed.

"OUR CAUSE IS JUST. OUR UNION IS PERFECT." The Declaration of the Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms was issued by the Second Continental Congress on July 6, 1775 explaining the necessity of the Thirteen Colonies' armed resistance against England. Issued a single day after the Olive Branch Petition, a final attempt to avoid open war, this declaration describes the injustices endured by the colonies under British rule, and the necessity of armed resistance against British troops in order to prevent further maltreatment. These injustices include taxation without representation, the quartering of British troops during peacetime, martial rule in Boston, the battles in Lexington and Concord, and the continual dismissal of the colonies' grievances and petitions by the British government. The declaration blames these grievances largely on Parliament's increased power within the colonies following the Seven Years' War, and states, "we have not raised armies with ambitious designs of separating from Great-Britain, and establishing independent states. We fight not for glory or for conquest," most famously, "with one mind [we are] resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves."

The exact authorship of the document is uncertain, but most likely John Dickinson, author of Letters from a Farmer of Pennsylvania, wrote the final draft, drawing upon an earlier version written by Thomas Jefferson. VERY RARE. Boyd "The Disputed Authorship of the Declaration on the Causes and Necessity for Taking Up Arms, 1775," in: Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, v 74 (1950), pp 51–73; Evans 14550; Whittemore Checklist 184.
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