MAO ZEDONG. 1893-1976. Manuscript Document Signed in character and stamp as Red Army representative, 2 pp, 8vo, n.p., [October-December], 1936, being a draft of an agreement titled "Resistance Against Japan," prepared for the signature of Zhang Xueliang but not signed by him,
Lot 5
MAO ZEDONG. 1893-1976. Manuscript Document Signed in character and stamp as Red Army representative, 2 pp, 8vo, n.p., [October-December], 1936, being a draft of an agreement titled "Resistance Against Japan," prepared for the signature of Zhang Xueliang but not signed by him,
Sold for US$ 506,500 inc. premium

Lot Details
MAO ZEDONG. 1893-1976. Manuscript Document Signed in character and stamp as Red Army representative, 2 pp, 8vo, n.p., [October-December], 1936, being a draft of an agreement titled "Resistance Against Japan," prepared for the signature of Zhang Xueliang but not signed by him, MAO ZEDONG. 1893-1976. Manuscript Document Signed in character and stamp as Red Army representative, 2 pp, 8vo, n.p., [October-December], 1936, being a draft of an agreement titled "Resistance Against Japan," prepared for the signature of Zhang Xueliang but not signed by him, MAO ZEDONG. 1893-1976. Manuscript Document Signed in character and stamp as Red Army representative, 2 pp, 8vo, n.p., [October-December], 1936, being a draft of an agreement titled "Resistance Against Japan," prepared for the signature of Zhang Xueliang but not signed by him,
MAO ZEDONG. 1893-1976.
Manuscript Document Signed in character and stamp as Red Army representative, 2 pp, 8vo, n.p., [October-December], 1936, being a draft of an agreement titled "Resistance Against Japan," prepared for the signature of Zhang Xueliang but not signed by him, mild creasing and toning, corners folded, stains and small perforation at upper margin from paper clip; with a SECOND, NEARLY IDENTICAL COPY, ALSO SIGNED BY MAO and in similar condition.

BOTH COPIES OF THE DRAFT PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE COMMUNIST AND NATIONALIST ARMIES. After a series of negotiations between Zhang Xueliang and various representatives of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao prepared and signed these documents, in essence the peace agreement between the Communists and the Nationalists. The goals of the agreement are laid out clearly at the beginning: to resist further invasion by Japan and reclaim captured territories; to unite the two militaries, and to set up a new democratic government for China. Mao prepared the document for Zhang's signature as the representative of the Northeast Army, but Zhang purportedly presented it to Chiang Kai-shek during the Xi-an Incident for the latter's signature. As we now know, no official peace agreement was signed during those tense 12 days when the Young Marshal held Chiang Kai-shek under house arrest, though both sides did agree to establish a united front against Japan and also to release prisoners accused of inciting anti-Japanese riots.

TRANSLATION:
Resistance Against Japan Agreement
1. Under the principle of saving the nation from the Japanese invasion, the representative of the Northeast Army, Zhang Xueliang, and the representative of the Red Army, Mao Zedong, agree to contribute high mutual reliance and trust between the two parties, and strive to achieve the success of the mission as follows:
A. To resist the invasion of Japan and regain the lost territories by a military equipped to save China.
B. To implement the united alliance of all political divisions and all armies across the nation.
C. To implement the set up of a new national government rooted in democracy.
2. In order to accomplish the above political missions, both parties commit to execute the following activities in their military territories across every aspect of the nation:
A. Strive to immediately stop the civil war (cease the attack of the Red Army) across the nation; to advocate the cooperation between all political divisions, and armies (particularly the Nationalist Government and armies under Chiang's rule) across the nation in order to implement the military activities of resistance against Japan.
B. Organize activities of resistance against the Japanese invasion among citizens, industry, business, and rural entities across the nation.
C. Across the country, promote the set up of a new national government rooted in democracy; call for an urgent national congress in accordance with universal suffrage to organize the national defense government.
D. Absolute entitlements to citizens of their rights of free speech, gathering, formation of community and association, as well as publication.
3. In the nearest best timing, the two parties agree to initiate and organize a national conference among all political divisions and all armies in order to establish strategies and plans to resist the Japanese invasion. Before the conference, the two parties arrange initiative meetings to discuss and organize all necessary preparation.
4. During the war of resistance against the Japanese invasion, the two parties shall take their own military responsibilities, however be wholly cooperative on all military activities. Under the command of the united national power of resistance against Japan, the two parties are to accomplish the mission to stop the Japanese invasion of China.
5. The two parties guarantee their political divisions and armies will not violate any clause of this agreement with any propaganda or activities. Nevertheless, the two parties retain their political sovereignty.
6. Based upon the principles of the above clauses, the two parties shall establish, by mutual consent, military or specific policies on particular issues.
7. This agreement shall take effect upon signature of the representative of each of the two parties.
8. Any amendment to this agreement requires the mutual consent of both parties.
1936 (empty) Month (empty) Day
Northeast Army Representative (empty)
Red Army Representative (Mao's signature and personal stamp)

Footnotes

  • 毛澤東(1893-1976)手抄文件

    手抄文件,署名紅軍代表,並蓋有印章。共二頁,8vo尺寸,日期為一九三六年十月至十二月間,書寫地點不詳。此「抗日救國協定」原準備交予張學良簽名,但終未能簽成。有輕微縐摺與褪色,四角摺損,上緣有迴紋針留下之污跡與穿孔。第二頁為副本,與正本幾乎完全相同,並同樣有毛澤東簽章。兩份文件保存狀態類似。

    國共「抗日救國協定」兩份。繼張學良與中國共產黨代表多次協商後,由毛澤東親自擬定並簽署此國共「抗日救國協定」。文件開頭明列協議之目標,亦即對日本武裝抗戰、保衛中國、收復失地;實現抗日聯合陣線、建立中華民主共和國。毛澤東本希望張學良以東北軍統帥身分簽署此文件,然而張學良卻在西安事變期間將文件交由蔣介石簽署。國共最終未能簽署抗日救國協定,然而張學良囚禁蔣介石十二天後,國共雙方也確實同意共同抗日,並且釋放在抗日活動中被捕的人士。
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