Wu Guanzhong (1919-2010) Lion Grove Garden in Suzhou
Lot 808
Wu Guanzhong (1919-2010) Lion Grove Garden in Suzhou
HK$ 3 million - 5 million
US$ 390,000 - 650,000
Lot Details
Wu Guanzhong (1919-2010)
Lion Grove Garden in Suzhou
Ink and colour on paper, framed and glazed
With three seals of the artist and one seal of the collector
69cm x 138cm (27in x 54¼in).

Footnotes

  • Provenance: formerly in the collection of the paleographer Ma Kwok Kuen (1931-2002)

    吳冠中 蘇州獅子林 設色紙本 鏡框 一九八〇年代作

    鈐印: 荼、八十年代、吳冠中印
    藏印: 羊城馬國權所藏書畫

    來源: 古文字學家馬國權 (1931-2002) 舊藏

    First built in the Yuan Dynasty, the Lion Grove Garden is one of the four famous gardens of Suzhou recognised as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Origins of the Lion Grove Garden vary, but it is generally believed that the name came about in 1341, when disciples of the beloved Zen Buddhist monk Weize constructed a garden for their master a year after he travelled to Suzhou to preach his teachings. Monk Weize named the garden in memory of his teacher Abbot Zhongfeng who attained nirvana at the Lion Cliff of Mount Tianmu in Zhejiang Province because the Chinese word for lion (shi 獅) was symbolic of the Buddhist Lion's Roar Sutra sharing the same pronunciation as 'teacher', 'master' or 'preceptor' (shi 師). The name is also fitting due to the many large and grotesque rocks that resemble lions in shape.

    To Wu Guanzhong, the Lion Grove Garden is a world of rockeries brimming with fantasy and imagination. The oddly-shaped forms, whether round, uneven, hollow, aspiring or accommodating, in the form of a lion, tiger, bear, leopard, man or nothing, became inspirations for his abstract art. (See Wu Guanzhong, The Birth Stories of Wu Guanzhong's Works, People's Fine Arts Publishing House, Beijing, 2008, p.69.)

    Wu had repeatedly commented that abstract aesthetics is the nucleus of formal beauty, which is tightly intertwined with life. He insisted on painting landscapes through first-hand observations of nature, instead of reproducing them in his studio, claiming to "have gone on painting trips for sixty years, as long as his entire artistic career." (See Wu Guanzhong, 'Illusion' in Guangming Daily, Beijing, 25 September 1996.) In the 1980s, Wu first sketched the rockeries and stone bridges of the Lion Grove Garden on paper using carbonic-inked pens. He then reworked the compositions into larger formats to include fish ponds in the foreground. On this topic, the artist provided a thoughtful analysis, "When I sketch the Lion Grove Garden, I note its ups and downs, its spacing, its flowing lines, its maze of nooks, crannies, caverns and peaks of all sizes, thus stirring a storm of dots, lines and planes. The Lion Grove's stream of consciousness and its structural forms are all abstract, and the beauty of this abstraction is guarded by the figural portrayal of pathways, pavilions, pines and swimming fish. I accentuate the abstract forms to promote the aesthetics of the garden designer." (See Wu Guanzhong, The Birth Stories of Wu Guanzhong's Works, People's Fine Arts Publishing House, Beijing, 2008, p.69.)

    It is currently known that the present lot, 'Lion Grove Garden in Suzhou', is one of Wu Guanzhong's six extant works on this topic. For other similar paintings in ink and colour on paper, see Lin Rixiong eds. Wu Guanzhong Paintings, Hebei Art Publishing House, Hebei, 1984, pp.60-61; Hui Lai Ping eds. Hanmo Series A22 Paintings of Famous Modern Chinese Artists: Wu Guanzhong Companion, Hong Kong, 1997, pp.44-45; Shui Tianzhong, Wang Hua eds. The Complete Works of Wu Guanzhong, Volume 6, Hunan Fine Arts Publishing House, Changsha, 2007, pp. 160-161, 179; Sotheby's Hong Kong, A Private Collection of 20th Century Chinese Paintings, 5 April 2011, Lot 1171.

    Wu devotes two thirds of the composition to the labyrinthine grotto of rocks outlined by quick, flowing lines that are straight, folding, wavy and arching. Some appear elegant and tasteful, some bizarre and grotesque, some large and imposing, some delicate and bright. Patches of colours such as yellow, green and pink imbue this oriental landscape with rhythm, charm and a playfulness often seen in western pictorial form. Corresponding to the abstract rocks are pine trees, passageways, pavilions and reflective waters that assume more defined forms. The swimming fish, floating duckweeds and the travellers in the pathways heighten a sense of movement, infusing the scene with life. This work is of a standard size in Wu Guanzhong's oeuvre. Through exquisite brushwork, a myriad of colours and clear layering of forms, Wu skillfully leads us into his world of abstract art.

    Ping Zhai explains, "Wu Guanzhong's later works show his signature, but not those executed in his earlier years." (See 'An Analysis on the Forgeries of Wu Guanzhong,' published in Hui Lai Ping ed., Hanmo Mo: A Magazine of Chinese Brush Art, Volume 6, Han Mo Xuan Publishing Co., Ltd., Hong Kong, 1992, p.65.)

    Zhou Shi shares the same view on Wu Guanzhong's signing practice, "Wu normally did not sign on many of his works after completion. He would only sign his name on the piece when he wanted to let it go. Wu said Picasso also had the same practice, therefore he did not sign his name on many of this works even until the end." (See 'Analysis on the Lying Buddha by Wu Guanzhong,' published in Hui Lai Ping ed., Hanmo Mo: A Magazine of Chinese Brush Art, Volume 6, Han Mo Xuan Publishing Co., Ltd., Hong Kong, 1992, p. 73.)

    This work shows imprints of the artist's frequently used seals. Although his signature is absent, this is in line with his ink painting practice.

    Note: Paleographer, calligrapher and seal-carver Ma Kwok Kuen assumed teaching positions at Jinan University and the Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts. In 1979, he turned to news reporting at the Hong Kong Ta Kung Pao, editing its three weeklies on art and literature. He was a researcher at the Chinese University of Hong Kong's Centre for Chinese Archaeology and Art in 1981, also teaching calligraphy and seal-carving at the University's Department of Fine Arts. He was an academic committee member of the China Calligraphers Association and served on the boards of Xiling Seal Engraving Society and the Society of Chinese Paleography. Since 1997, he was hired as a researcher at the Art Museum, Chinese University of Hong Kong on a 2-year term. Ma was subsequently appointed by Hong Kong's Leisure and Cultural Services Department as art advisor and honorary museum consultant, also board member of Xuehai Shulou. He had since resided in Hong Kong, dedicating his life to the arts and humanities.

    初建於元代的獅子林是蘇州四大名園之一,被列入《世界文化遺產名錄》。其名稱的由來說法不一,但普遍認為始於西元1341年。當時,高僧天如禪師維則到蘇州講經,受到弟子的愛戴;隔年,弟子就為他建禪林。天如禪師因得道於浙江天目山獅子岩,為紀念佛徒衣鉢、師承關係,取佛經中獅子座之意,故名「師子林」,又因園內「林有竹萬個,竹下多怪石,有狀如狻猊(獅子)」,亦名「獅子林」。

    對吳冠中而言,獅子林的石頭世界奇幻無比,充滿想象 。那些「方圓、凹凸、穿鑿、顧、盼、迎、合、是獅、是虎、是熊、是豹、或是人、又什麼也不是」的造型結構,給予他創作抽象畫的靈感。(參見吳冠中著,《吳冠中畫作誕生記》,人民美術出版社,北京,2008年,頁69。)

    吳冠中曾多次闡述抽象美是形式美的核心,與生活有著緊密的聯繫。他堅持風景畫要在寫生中創造,而不是在畫室裡臆造,稱自己「從藝六十年,寫生六十年」。(參見吳冠中〈錯覺〉一文,刊於《光明日報》,北京,1996年9月25日。)1980年代,他先以鋼筆和碳素墨水捕捉獅子林的假山石橋,再發展成大型彩墨創作,納入近景魚塘。藝術家對此題材有深刻的分析:「我面對獅子林寫生,寫其起伏、寫其疏密、寫其線之流竄、寫鑽出鑽進的大大小小的窟窿,畫面上於是掀起一陣點、線、面的喧囂......獅子林的意識流造型構成是抽象的,抽象的形式之美被尊奉於長廊、亭台、松柏、游魚等具象的衛護之中,我突出此抽象造型,是有意發揚造園主人的審美意識。」(參見吳冠中著,《吳冠中畫作誕生記》,人民美術出版社,北京,2008年,頁69。)

    吳冠中「獅子林」系列創作,目前已知共有六幅傳世,此幅〈蘇州獅子林〉為其一。 其他類似題材的設色紙本畫作,可參考林日雄編,《吳冠中畫集》,河北美術出版社,河北,1984年,頁60-61;許禮平主編,《名家翰墨叢刊:中國近代名家書畫全集》第22期〈吴冠中 · 伴侣〉,香港,1997年,頁44-45;水田中等編,《吳冠中全集》第六卷,湖南美術出版社,中國長沙,2007年,頁160-161和179;以及香港蘇富比,《私人收藏二十世紀名家作品》,2011年4月5日,拍品編號1171。

    此作畫面約三分之二的面積,以流暢明快的直線、折線、曲線和弧線,勾勒出形狀各異的假山石頭。有的雅緻大方,有的光怪陸離,有的氣勢雄渾,有的剔透玲瓏。繽紛的黃、 綠、粉紅等色塊,為這極富東方神韻的景觀,增添節奏感、韻律美和西方繪畫之形式趣味。與石群的抽象對應的,是高處形象較明確的松柏、亭廊、以及光影可鑒的水面。池中游魚、飄動浮萍和長廊中的遊人,使畫面靜中寓動,更具生命力。此幅〈蘇州獅子林〉,為吳氏作品之標準尺寸,畫面筆力精湛、色彩豐富、層次分明,巧妙地引領觀者進入藝術家的抽象世界。

    平齋指出:「吳氏畫作近幾年始有簽名,早些年是不簽名的。」(參見〈吳冠中偽作剖析〉,載於許禮平總編《名家翰墨,第六冊:吳冠中專號》,翰墨軒出版有限公司,香港,1992年,頁65。)

    周適同樣認為:「他的作品完成後,有許多是不簽名的,只是在出手時才簽上自己的名字。他說畢加索就是這樣,所以他有許多作品直到最後也沒有署名。」(參見〈吳冠中談大足臥佛〉,載於許禮平總編《名家翰墨,第六冊:吳冠中專號》,翰墨軒出版有限公司,香港,1992年,頁73。)

    此幅創作於八十年代的〈蘇州獅子林〉,雖無簽名,但有畫家常用的印章,符合畫家水墨畫創作的習慣。

    註:馬國權,古文字學家、書法家及篆刻家。歷主廣州美術學院、暨南大學教席。1979年轉任香港《大公報》,主編該報之三個文學、藝術周刊。1981年任香港中文大學考古藝術研究中心研究員,並在藝術系任教書法篆刻。曾任中國古文字研究會理事、西泠印社理事和中國書法家協會學術委員會委員。1997年受聘為香港中文大學文物館研究員,為期兩年。後又獲香港康樂及文化事務署委任為藝術顧問和博物館名譽顧問,並應邀出任學海書樓董事。從此定居香港,永結文緣。
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