Lot Details
A yellow nephrite snuff bottle 1720–1830 A yellow nephrite snuff bottle 1720–1830 A yellow nephrite snuff bottle 1720–1830 A yellow nephrite snuff bottle 1720–1830 A yellow nephrite snuff bottle 1720–1830
A yellow nephrite snuff bottle
1720–1830
5.45cm high.

Footnotes

  • Treasury 1, no. 168

    黃玉光素鼻煙壺

    Flawless nephrite; very well hollowed with a broad recessed foot
    1720–1830
    Height: 5.45 cm
    Mouth/lip: 0.72/1.97 and 1.87 cm (oval)
    Stopper: tourmaline; gilt-silver collar

    Condition: original material of incredibly pure and even colour, with only one faint line of inner skin on one narrow side, not at all intrusive (1.2 cm long)

    Provenance:
    Hugh M. Moss Ltd (Hong Kong, 1993)

    Published:
    Kleiner 1995, no. 65
    Treasury 1, no. 168

    Exhibited:
    British Museum, June–October 1995

    Commentary:
    The virtuoso hollowing of jade snuff bottles, where the walls are reduced to an exquisite thinness, has been proposed as a likely development of the Qianlong period, one that probably continued into the nineteenth century, losing its momentum perhaps during the latter Daoguang period. Such a characteristic would have developed as a novelty, a skill to be wondered at and commented upon. As soon as it became commonplace and standard, the extra trouble and risk involved in continuing the practice would eventually have exceeded the rewards.

    If we assume that super-hollowing was a mid-Qing phenomenon, it certainly would not have come about without a gradual evolution from normal, purely functional hollowing, through varying degrees of better and better hollowing to reach the paper-thin stage. Over a number of years it would have been a bit like the evolution of records in sport, with each new degree of hollowing setting the standard to be beaten by the next until, inevitably, the standard became so thin it was impossible to go further without the obvious danger of piercing the wall (paper-thin bottles where this has happened are known). The extreme of hollowing is represented by the Cussons white nephrite, Treasury 1, no. 170, which makes eggshell look positively clunky. Other super-hollowed bottles are nos. 169 and 174 (for a discussion on a possible origin of super-hollowed bottles, see no. 169).

    It is not yet clear when the shift from functional to more impressive, notable hollowing began. A lack of reign-marked or otherwise dated snuff bottles earlier than the Qianlong era makes it difficult to create any detailed chronology of hardstone bottles for the early Qing period. The entire evolution could have taken place within the Qianlong period. This bottle is very well hollowed, but not yet a virtuoso performance. It probably dates from the Qianlong period, although we have left a wider date range because of the difficulty of dating plain bottles and the probability that whenever the shift to finer hollowing took place and to whatever extent virtuoso hollowing became common, it would not have precluded the coexistence of merely excellent hollowing such as this. The material also favours a Qianlong date although, again, not exclusively. The material is completely flawless and of even colour. It is also about as yellow as one finds in so-called 'yellow' nephrite, which always has a greenish tinge to it. Yellow jade was immensely popular at the Qing court, and was apparently particularly beloved of the Qianlong emperor. Apart from a range of snuff bottles in the material, the imperial collection has a surfeit of larger vessels of this sought-after colour. Material of this type was known and treasured as early as the Zhou dynasty and was apparently also a favourite during the Song to early-Ming period.

    With the quantity of imperial pieces known in the material, it is likely that a great deal of it dates from the time when the conquest of Turkestan brought the source of the raw material under Chinese control. The Qianlong reign was only half over and the imperial jade workshops were increased from two to as many as eight after 1760 (see discussion under no. 114). If we allow for the Qianlong momentum in jade-carving both in terms of quantity and quality to have carried over perhaps into the early Daoguang period (although insurrections in Turkestan in 1812 interrupted supplies of raw material for a while) we are looking at a period of perhaps sixty years or more of continuous, almost obsessive production by and for the court, and this at a time when the snuff bottle was at the peak of its popularity.

    This example is amongst the finest of the group, with its purity and flawlessness of distinctly yellow colour, generously bulbous form perfectly executed and hollowed, and lovely, soft polish. For further discussion on yellow nephrite, see Moss, Graham, and Tsang 1993, no. 56, and for other vessels in this material from the imperial collection, Yang Boda 1992, p. 93, and Zhongguo yuqi quanji, vol. 6, nos. 136, 146 (with a Qianlong mark), no. 152 (with skin), nos. 180, 188, 200, 204 and 206 (both with Qianlong marks), 227 and 230 (both with skin), 235, 241, 248, and 252 (with skin and a magnificent silver-wire inlay, Qianlong imperial mount).

    無瑕閃玉;掏膛非常規整,底寬而斂
    1720~1830年
    高:5.45 厘米
    口經/唇經:0.72/1.97、1.87 厘米 (橢圓形)
    蓋:碧璽, 描金銀座

    狀態敘述:
    材料顏色極其純粹而均勻,一側面呈一線淡漠的內皮,並不引人注目 (1.2 厘米長)

    來源:
    Hugh M. Moss Ltd (香港,1993)

    文獻:
    Kleiner 1995, 編號65
    Treasury 1, 編號168

    展覽:
    大英博物館, 倫敦, 1995年6月~10月

    說明:
    據說,玉煙壺器輕體薄的高超掏膛藝術是乾隆時期的成就,而到了道光後期才失去了動力。當初是新奇的工藝,但漸漸成為平常的特性以後,掏出薄如紙的器壁的費用、風險與其回報就不成正比了。 掏膛的極點可以由亞歷克斯.庫森斯的白玉煙壺代表, Treasury 1, 編號170;它讓蛋殼顯得厚厚的。此外可參照編號 169、174。

    本壺掏膛非常規整,,但尚不能算是空前絕後。大概是乾隆年間作的,但因為精湛掏膛興盛的開端是甚麼時候,而無裝飾的煙壺特別不容易推定琢製時期,我們承認可能是晚一點。在某一個時期中,不同水平的掏膛可以並存。玉料的種類本身也證實乾隆時期的可能性。

    本壺玉料無瑕,顏色均勻,而其色彩正好是清宮,特別是乾隆皇帝最喜愛的"黃"顏色。皇家珍藏中還有很多黃玉的玉器(如帶"乾隆年製"款的這個帶蓋碗)。Moss, Graham, and Tsang 1993, 編號56 也提供黃玉的論述。其他例子可參見 Yang Boda 1992, 頁 93, 與《中國玉器全集》卷6, 編號 136、 146 (有乾隆款), 編號152 (有皮)、 編號 180、188、 200、204 與 206 (這兩件都有乾隆款)、 227與 230 (這兩件都有皮)、235、241、248、與 252 (有皮和宏偉的鑲嵌銀線圖案、乾隆御製支撐架)。
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