Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd;
Lot 65
A carnelian-agate double-gourd snuff bottle Possibly Imperial, perhaps palace workshops, Beijing, 1740–1820
Sold for HK$ 168,000 (US$ 21,661) inc. premium

Lot Details
Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd; Dendritic Carnelian-agate;  carved as a double gourd;
A carnelian-agate double-gourd snuff bottle
Possibly Imperial, perhaps palace workshops, Beijing, 1740–1820
sold with accompanying watercolour by Peter Suart
6.49cm high.

Footnotes

  • Treasury 2, no. 241


    紅瑪瑙細腰葫蘆鼻煙壺
    或為御製品,可能是宮廷作坊作,北京,1740~1820


    The Palace Flaming Gourd

    Carnelian-agate; of double-gourd form, well hollowed into both bulbs, with a flat lip and naturalistic, concave foot doubling as the calyx of the fruit
    Possibly imperial, perhaps palace workshops, Beijing, 1740–1820
    Height: 6.49 cm
    Mouth/lip: 0.58/1.05 cm
    Stopper: glass; gilt-bronze collar
    Condition: Material: some minor flaws in the material, not obtrusive, and mostly contained with the foot area. Bottle: one small and one miniscule chip to inner lip and possibly two hair-line cracks across the lip and into the upper neck, but both associated with natural flaws and plausibly original. General relative condition: good


    Illustration: Watercolour by Peter Suart

    Provenance:
    Robert Hall (1987)

    Published:
    Hall 1987, no. 23
    Kleiner 1995, no. 284
    Treasury 2, no. 241

    Exhibited:
    Robert Hall, London, October 1987
    British Museum, London, June–October 1995
    Israel Museum, Jerusalem, July–November 1997

    Commentary
    The botanical world offered a wide range of possible forms for the snuff-bottle maker and with the Chinese love of nature this potential was explored to the full. One of the most popular was the gourd, and in particular this distinctive form of the fruit known as the double gourd. Gourds have been widely cultivated in China since earliest times because they form ideal natural containers and, if cut or otherwise manipulated, drinking vessels, sound-boxes for musical instruments, and a variety of other useful forms. For details of the botany and history of the gourd in China, see Moss, Graham, and Tsang 1993, no. 274.

    Under the Qing emperors the use of gourds in art was brought to a new height. Within the palace at Beijing the art of moulding gourds by strapping wooden moulds around the growing fruit reached its zenith during the eighteenth century, resulting in the finest and most complex manipulated gourds ever produced as art in any culture. Not only were these vessels produced at court, a significant proportion of the wares excited the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors sufficiently to have them inscribed with a range of the most highly imperial marks designating personal use by the emperor. As part of the same impetus, gourds were also impressed with hand-held tools (which gave the appearance of carving, but in fact did not cut the surface at all, but pressed it downwards to give the impression of a carved surface when the rind of the fruit dried to a wood-like hardness). This passion for gourds within the palace undoubtedly made the gourd-form snuff bottle popular at court and it became a standard imperial form, offering us one of the many clues to imperial attribution that we currently have.

    Because of the proliferation of fruit on a single vine, the gourd was also a common symbol for the multiple progeny that was so important in Chinese culture. This made it doubly useful at court, where many gifts were required, and the snuff bottle was a handy form of gift. With generalized symbolism of this sort, a bottle could be made and later presented to anyone, at which point the symbolism became specific to the recipient.

    The double-gourd form is elongated sufficiently that even leaving it fully in the round, as here, it was manageable because the twin bulbs with a narrow waist formed a natural container that was nothing like as bulky as a bottle formed from a single sphere with equal capacity. Because of this the double-gourd form was often left fully in the round (although for a flattened version and discussion, see Treasury 2,, no. 242). There is a series of unquestionably palace-workshop enamel-on-glass double gourds discussed in Moss, Graham, and Tsang 1993 under nos. 189–191 and others known in enamel on metal (e.g. Fuller 1970, colour centre-plate, top right, with a Jiaqing mark). There are also many in other materials, several attributable to the court, including nephrite, and several were published in Treasury 1, including no. 73 where the evidence for an imperial attribution is offered. There seems little doubt that to whatever extent this was a popular form generally, it was particularly popular at court. The imperial attribution here is based upon this belief and upon the wide mouth, which was also a court feature, and to some extent upon the extraordinary realism and quality of the carving. Further evidence is supplied by the existence of a faceted octagonal form made from the same raw material (Hugh Moss Records). The markings in this particular piece of stone are distinctive and extremely unusual and it is obvious that both are from a common, larger piece of material.

    The workmanship of this gourd is exceptional. Apart from the elegance of form, the hollowing into the two bulbs is little short of miraculous. The hole at the waist leading to the lower bulb is little wider than the mouth, and yet the bottom bulb is as finely hollowed, and follows the outer contour as accurately, as the upper bulb. This sort of feat is every bit as impressive as the paper-thin hollowing of the mid-Qing period, since the inaccessibility of the lower bulb means that the artist was, so to speak, flying blind and had to work mostly by feel alone, especially with a non-transparent material of this kind. One other formal feature is intriguing. The gourd leans quite noticeably to one side in the upper bulb, as so many natural double gourds do because as they hang on the vine, their stems often coming off at an angle, gravity pulls the growing gourd downwards, causing a list in the eventual form when it is cut and placed on a flat surface. In a bottle so superbly made this can only have been an attempt to make the stone bottle as close to the original as possible. This is another indication of the palace workshops, perhaps, where the best artists were often employed to design snuff bottles and where high standards of art consequently ruled.

    The material here is also unique in the snuff-bottle world. It is distinctly red, allowing the designation 'carnelian-agate' but on close examination it is also dendritic in the markings that make up the appearance of macaroni (for a discussion on macaroni-agate, see Treasury 2, no. 201). The only other piece of this material known in the snuff-bottle world is the above-mentioned, faceted octagonal bottle. Both are as striking as they are rare. In this example, as in the other, there are some minor flaws in the material which could not be removed because of the formal perfection required of this shape and they have been filled with composition of some kind, an unusual departure for a quartz bottle but common on early coral bottles where large pieces of unflawed material were obviously rare. Most early imperial coral bottles have filling either of separate pieces of coral, or often in coloured wax. This extraordinary material was obviously considered in the same light, as being so outstanding in its own right that a little filling was acceptable.

    The fascinating surface texture here allows for several interpretive possibilities, but one of the most dynamic is to see the entire surface aflame, with flickering fire interspersed with hot smoke billowing upwards towards the neck.


    宮庭火焰葫蘆

    紅瑪瑙,夾黃色、白色;細腰葫蘆形,上下腹皆掏膛規整,平唇、凹底,底兼呈葫蘆花接子房處

    或為御製品,可能是宮廷作坊作,北京,1740~1820
    高:6.49 厘米
    口經/唇經:0.58/1.05 厘米
    蓋:玻璃,描金青銅座
    狀態敘述:材質:微小的瑕疵,並不引人注目,多聚集於腹下部;壺:口沿有小缺口與微小缺口各一,橫唇及頸上部有極細的裂縫,或許和材料的天然瑕疵有關;一般相對的狀況:良好

    有彼德小話 (Peter Suart) 水彩畫

    來源:
    羅伯特.霍爾(1987)
    文獻﹕
    Hall 1987, 編號23
    Kleiner 1995, 編號284
    Treasury 2, 編號241
    展覽﹕
    Robert Hall, 倫敦,1987年10月
    大英博物館, 倫敦, 1995年6月~10 月
    Israel Museum, 耶路撒冷, 1997年7~月11月

    說明:
    葫蘆煙壺和葫蘆形煙壺都是清代皇帝特別喜愛的品種,康熙御用模製葫蘆煙壺和乾隆御用模製葫蘆煙壺都站模製葫蘆相當的部分。宮廷作坊作的葫蘆形頒賜煙壺也不少。本壺的口比較寬,寫實風格的雕藝良好,這都是宮廷作品的典型。莫士撝未付梓知見錄載有明明是同一塊材料雕成的八角形煙壺,可算是宮廷來源的旁證。

    細腰葫蘆形煙壺的容量還是適當的,扁圓形的有是有, 可是圓形的也很合理。本壺掏膛簡直是鬼斧神工,細腰裏的通道差點兒比壺口一樣小,但下腹還是掏膛完整,正如上腹一樣,膛的厚薄均勻一致。這是跟清朝中期極薄的掏膛一樣地驚人,因為材料不透明,只能摸盲盲地去掏。

    值得一提的是,本壺上腹稍微歪斜。這必定是雕匠想模擬葫蘆果實的真面目,真是達到了"天公怪汝鉤物情"的頂點。 這也可能是本壺出於宮廷作坊的表徵,因為宮廷雕匠多有神手。

    本壺的材料稱為紅瑪瑙是正確的,但仔細地查看就明白它也有所謂燈草瑪瑙的成分。在鼻煙壺壇,這個材料作的只有本壺與上舉八角形壺,既美觀又獨一無二。兩件煙壺都有微小的瑕疵,因為壺形不能隨便削除瑕疵所在之地,因而裂隙以一種合成物填好了。在早期的珊瑚煙壺,因為無瑕的大塊珊瑚很稀少,常常以蠟或珊瑚碎片填補;這兩件壺的材料顯然被視為跟珊瑚一樣地珍稀,容許填補,所謂瑕不揜瑜是也。
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