Imperial, Guyue xuan type, probably palace workshops, Beijing, 17751799 sold with accompanying watercolour by Peter Suart 5.78cm high.
Treasury 6, no. 1101
白玻璃琺瑯彩鳳凰朝陽鼻煙壺 御製品，宮廷作坊作，北京， 古月軒款，1775～1799
Facing the Sun
Famille rose enamels on translucent white glass; with a flat lip and recessed, slightly convex foot surrounded by a protruding flattened footrim; carved in relief with a continuous partial design, coloured and completed with enamels, of a fenghuang standing on one leg atop a perforated, convoluted rock formation, with peonies and lingzhi growing nearby, the sun above partially veiled by a wisp of cloud; the foot inscribed in pale, iron-red regular script Guyue xuan (Ancient Moon Pavilion) Imperial, palace workshops, Beijing, 17751799 Height: 5.78 cm Mouth/lip: 0.72/1.62 cm Stopper: jadeite; gilt silver collar Condition: some minor surface wear, invisible to the naked eye, the base mark with some abrasions affecting the iron red of the mark. General relative condition: except for the wear to the base, virtually studio condition
Exhibited: Sydney L. Moss Ltd., London, October 1987 Creditanstalt, Vienna, MayJune 1993
Commentary For the Guyue xuan group of enamelled glass wares, see Treasury 6, nos. 1094 1105, and Hugh Moss, 'Mysteries of the Ancient Moon,' JICSBS, Spring 2006.
A series of popular subjects for the classic Guyue xuan group was used repeatedly, although always with changes in composition. This symbolic design of a fenghuang and the rising sun appears often enough to allow us to examine the variations in composition. Another example is in Perry 1960, no. 76 (where it is catalogued in the confused tradition of the time as not being a genuine Guyue xuan bottle because it bore a Guyue xuan, rather than a Qianlong mark). All the same elements appear, but the composition is entirely different, the bird looking in a different direction, the sun in a different place, the large lingzhi, if present at all in the Perry version, on the other side, and so forth. Apart from the differences in the basic composition, fixed by either the designer or the glass carver, the colours have been varied as well, perhaps by the enameller but again, possibly dictated by a preparatory sketch. The clouds of the Perry version are blue and yellow with iron-red details, whereas here the blue is absent. Another example in the Burghley House Collection will suffice to establish the overall trend (Kleiner 1989, no. 59); it features still more colourful clouds and a second, flying fenghuang on the other main side. Another very similar counterpart was in Christie's, New York, 29 November 1990, lot 125. One of somewhat similar form was sold at Sotheby's, Hong Kong, 28 April 1997, lot 36 (from the Bob Stevens and Eric Young Collections, also in JICSBS, Summer 1997, p. 27, fig. 4, and Sotheby's, London, 3 March 1987, lot 65). Another variation on the theme, with two fenghuang (one in flight) and peonies, is in the Monimar Collection (Lawrence 1996, no. 2). The same subject also appears among others on a small, long-necked vase with four panels of decoration; that is illustrated in Moss 1978, p. 1, fig. 6; p. 15, fig. 10, is another vase, with a four-character Qianlong mark, also decorated with the same theme. Obviously a popular subject, the fenghuangpeony combination was ordered on a range of works, but the lingering preference at the palace workshops to treat each piece as an individual work of art still prevailed. The wear on many of the classic Guyue xuan wares is informative. Like so many mid to late-Qianlong enamels, high magnification gives the impression of a pattern of scratches going under the enamels. With such evidence on a plain bottle it would be sensible to at least allow that the bottle when enamelled was already old, with a pattern of surface scratches, but that hypothesis is not credible in the case of this double-plane group. Such pieces are incomplete without the enamelling, and to leave blank, partial design, white glass bottles for years before enamelling them, but putting them to use in the meantime, would be inconceivable. In some cases the enamels themselves are barely worn at all as if the bottle has been used only very sparingly for a short period of time, while the ground is somewhat abraded. This combination of unworn enamel and worn glass ground are sufficiently common on the relief group that the only possible conclusion is that the glass was either left a little roughened from the polishing process or purposely re-roughened in order to hold the enamels better. Either way is plausible, and the visual surface would look much the same.
The subject represents several desires. A fenghuang gazing at the sun illustrates a popular phrase, Danfeng chaoyang (literally, 'A fenghuang facing the sun) that symbolizes a man being given an opportunity to prove his talents. The peonies are emblematic of wealth because of their exuberant colours and the fact that in the past only the aristocratic families could afford to grow them in their gardens. As for the lingzhi and rocks, both are standard symbols of long life.
來源： 羅伯特．霍爾（1985） 文獻： Kleiner 1987, 編號19 《國際中國鼻煙壺協會的學術期刊》Journal of the International Chinese Snuff Bottle Society, 1987年夏期，頁23 Treasury 6，編號1101 展覽﹕ Sydney L. Moss Ltd, 倫敦, 1987年10 月 Creditanstalt, 維也納, 1993年5月～6月
說明： 關於玻璃胎琺瑯彩古月軒鼻煙壺，參閱Treasury 6， 編號1094～1105與莫士撝，〈古月奧秘〉，《國際中國鼻煙壺協會的學術期刊》Journal of the International Chinese Snuff Bottle Society, 2006年春期。關於丹鳳朝陽圖其他例子，參閱Treasury 6，編號1101，本壺的說明和本網站的英文版。有乾隆年款也好，有古月軒款也好，宮廷作坊的工藝師還是以每一件作品視為單個藝術作品。
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