Sapphire;  compressed rounded shape
Lot 13
A sapphire snuff bottle Possibly Imperial, 1770–1850
Sold for HK$ 780,000 (US$ 100,639) inc. premium
Lot Details
A sapphire snuff bottle
Possibly Imperial, 1770–1850
5.7cm high.

Footnotes

  • Treasury 3, no. 405

    藍寶石鼻煙壺
    或為御製品,1770~1850

    The Belfort Classic Sapphire

    Sapphire; reasonably well hollowed with a flat lip and flat foot
    Possibly imperial, 1770–1850
    Height: 5.7 cm
    Mouth/lip 0.56/2.14 cm
    Stopper: tourmaline; jadeite collar
    Condition: the usual flaws and inclusions in the original material; one significant chip in outer lip to varying depths, extending 0.9 cm; other minor nibbles around outer lip; what appears to be a crack across the lip is too deep to be and is probably part of an original flaw polished in as part of the original process


    Provenance:
    Hugh M. Moss Ltd. (1977)
    Belfort Collection (1986)
    Published:
    Hugh M. Moss, Ltd 1976, no. 162
    Jutheau 1980, p. 116, fig. 3
    Kleiner 1987, no. 181
    Treasury 3, no. 405

    Exhibited:
    Hugh M. Moss Ltd., London, 1976
    L'Arcade Chaumet, Paris, June 1982
    Sydney L. Moss Ltd., London, October 1987
    Creditanstalt, Vienna, May–June 1993

    Commentary
    This is one of the best of a series of early sapphire and ruby snuff bottles, several of which are of essentially this same compressed spherical form. For the famous Count Blucher ruby, see Moss, 1971a, no. 103, and for the Beatty example, Chapman 1988 p. 61, fig. 9, where fig. 10 is a related plain sapphire. Another plain, early sapphire bottle similar to this is illustrated in Hamilton 1977, p. 55 no. S–58, and one of a different shape in Ford 1982, no. 58. Another, with mask handles and a band of lappets around the base, was offered by Sotheby's, Hong Kong, 28 October 1992, lot 422, while an old, fruit-form sapphire bottle is illustrated by Stevens 1976, no. 632, where a range of green jadeite bottles of an ovoid form similar to that of the majority of sapphire and ruby examples is also shown (nos. 438–441 and 449). The jadeite bottles probably date from the late Qianlong period into the mid-Qing dynasty, and there is no reason why the ruby and sapphire bottles should not be from much the same period.

    Sapphire and ruby were among the stones classified by the court as 'precious' along with pearls, jadeite, cat's eye and diamonds, while the 'semi-precious' materials were tourmaline, nephrite, amethyst, amber, turquoise, lapis lazuli, coral, quartz, agate, sea shells, tortoise shell and ivory (according to Guoli Gugong bowuyuan 1986, p. 30). The same source informs us that on court belts the use of ruby and sapphire was reserved for the emperor (p. 31). However, this does not mean that the materials were generally restricted to the emperor, since the hat-finial of the first rank of civil or military officials was also of ruby.

    Sapphire and ruby are both of the corundum family and consist of crystals of aluminium oxide. If chromium ions replace the original crystal's aluminium, the result is ruby. The Chinese might have had supplies from Kashmir, famous for its deep cornflower-blue sapphires, but the most likely source on a regular basis would have been Magok in Burma, where mining for both sapphire and ruby had been carried out since the late sixteenth century. This source would certainly have supplied the court after the normalization of relations in 1784 ended a protracted period of hostilities between the two countries, although illicit trade would have been sporadic before that date. We have surmised that this event led to the massive popularity of jadeite, which became well established as a precious stone only in the last decades of the eighteenth century (see Moss, Graham, and Tsang 1993, no. 60) and it seems likely that this group of early sapphire and ruby bottles, which so resemble their many jadeite counterparts, date from the same mid-Qing period and were probably made for the court. Burmese sapphire is characteristically quite heavily flawed, as is the ruby, but this is of little help in a snuff-bottle context where all material large enough to form a snuff bottle is going to be flawed. Another possible source was Thailand, where darker blue sapphires were found in quantity.
    Early examples of sapphire and ruby are among the rarest of snuff bottles, although strangely they do not yet command anything like the prices of their jadeite counterparts which are relatively a good deal more common. This is one of the best of the entire group and in a class with the ruby bottle from the Blucher collection. The colour is extraordinary for so large a piece, deep, vibrant, brilliant and evenly spread throughout the bottle and even the pattern of matrix and paler flaws, which inevitably run through a piece of sapphire this size, are attractive and fascinating as texture. They read like bats flying against a deep azure sky or, to be more realistic, since bats only fly at dusk or during the night, chi dragons frolicking in high summer.

    Harder than jadeite to work, and being a precious material and translucent, sapphire and ruby are never extensively hollowed, although this particular bottle is reasonably well hollowed, even by jadeite standards for the range of bottles of this general shape. It is also achieved through a relatively small mouth, a common feature of the oval bottles in sapphire, ruby or jadeite which may offer a further clue to dating. In 1888, Zhang Yishu wrote some supplementary remarks to Zhao Zhiqian's Yonglu xianjie (see Richard John Lynn's translation, JICSBS Summer, 1995, p. 18). He comments that originally the size of a snuff bottle mouth might exceed 12 mm but that later this changed so they would not exceed 6 mm. He puts no date on this change, but if we look to hardstone bottles with mouths of less than 6 mm for further information, it would seem that by the Qianlong period, and particularly the second half, the smaller mouth was already well established.

    Among the many exclusions from Zhao Zhiqian's references to particular types of snuff bottles in his Yonglu xianjie in the 1860s are ruby and sapphire, but they are today sufficiently rare that many collectors will not have handled one at all and in Zhao's day, long before the copious illustrations of thousands upon thousands of snuff bottles from private and public collections, his range of experience of bottles would almost certainly have been fairly limited. His circle of friends and acquaintances would undoubtedly have provided him with access to a number of bottles, as would frequent visits to the local antique shops, but it is doubtful if he saw in his entire span of interest in the subject anything like as much as we have available to us today, given an hour or two with our many publications. Nor would he have had access to the imperial Collection, as we have today through exhibition and publication. Although well qualified, and renowned for his painting and calligraphy, Zhao was never offered an official position at court and died a disappointed man because of it (see JICSBS Summer, 1995, p.10). It seems unlikely that Zhao would not have mentioned sapphire and ruby snuff bottles if he had come across them since, having commented that jadeite was too hard a stone to hollow out properly, he would surely have been impressed by the hollowing of a stone many times harder.
    Although marginally too large by modern aesthetic standards, the stopper here is sumptuously matched with its rare and prominent jadeite collar and tourmaline cabochon. It is, however, extremely practical, allowing a firm grip for its removal, however tight the cork might have been, and we may be certain that convenience of function in stoppering would have influenced aesthetics to some extent during the Qing dynasty.


    Belfort氏典型的藍寶石

    藍寶石;掏膛適當,平唇、平足

    或為御製品,1770~1850
    高:5.7 厘米
    口經/唇經:0.56/2.14厘米
    蓋:碧璽,翡翠座
    狀態敘述:具藍寶石本質的疵點;唇緣微瑕外尚有一條0.9厘米長、顯著深淺不齊的瑕疵,像裂痕的穿唇一瑕疵大概不是裂縫而是此塊藍寶石原有的

    來源:
    Hugh M. Moss Ltd (1987)
    Belfort珍藏 (1986)

    文獻:
    Hugh M. Moss Ltd 1976, 編號162
    Jutheau 1980, 頁116,圖3
    Kleiner 1987, 編號181
    Treasury 3, 編號405

    展覽:
    Hugh M. Moss Ltd, 倫敦, 1976年
    L'Arcade Chaumet, 巴黎, 1982年6月
    Sydney L. Moss Ltd, 倫敦, 1987年10 月
    Creditanstalt, 維也納, 1993年5月至6月

    說明:
    這是早期藍寶石與紅寶石鼻煙壺最佳品之一,該系列煙壺中有些是與本壺同樣的扁圓形。可以參照有名的布呂歇爾伯爵 (Kurt Blücher von Wahlstatt, Graf) 收藏所收紅寶石 (Hugh Moss 1971a, 編號103) 和Beatty 珍藏所收的兩壺 (Chapman 1988, 頁61,圖9、10, 後者為相關的無花紋藍寶石壺)。與本壺類似的有發表在Hamilton 1977, 頁55(編號S-58壺),還有形式不同的發表在Ford 1982 的編號58壺。兩側浮雕獸面的有蘇富比香港1992年10月28日拍賣的422拍賣品號,水果形藍寶石煙壺有Stevens 1976發表的編號632。Stevens 1976編號438~441與449是類似多數的藍寶石、紅寶石煙壺的圓形翡翠鼻煙壺,大約是乾隆期至清朝中期製的,按情理來推論,藍寶石煙壺和紅寶石煙壺的製作時期應該是相差無幾的。

    藍寶石和紅寶石都是剛玉寶石的兩種。紅色的是有鉻的剛玉,只有氧化鋁的是藍寶石。克什米爾是有名的藍寶石產地,但中國最長久的供應地可能是緬甸曼德勒省莫谷鎮附近的寶石礦區。當地自十七世紀起就開鑿了寶石礦山,雖然在順治、乾隆年間清朝發動過短期的戰爭,在乾隆晚年正式的寶石貿易就沒有多少政治方面的阻礙了。緬甸的翡翠從那個時期引入中國,翡翠因而在中國開始流行,看藍寶石和紅寶石作的早期煙壺在形式上很像翡翠作的,我們可以推定這一批藍寶石與紅寶石鼻煙壺,也是清朝中期作的,而且是給朝廷作的。緬甸的藍寶石跟紅寶石一樣,一般呈現很多疵瑕,但這並不是識別緬甸剛玉寶石的標準,因為可以治成煙壺那麼大的一塊寶石,從本質上就一定會有疵瑕的。另外一個來源就是泰國,那裡的藍寶石顏色比較暗。

    早期的藍寶石與紅寶石鼻煙壺頗稀罕,奇怪的是,他們不像相對普遍的、極相像的翡翠煙壺價格那麼貴。本壺是早期藍寶石煙壺中相當良好的,跟布呂歇爾伯爵珍藏收的紅寶石煙壺一樣的超群絕倫。其顏色鮮濃而均勻地分布於全壺,這麼大一塊藍寶石必具的脈石和淡色的疵瑕顯現出有意思的、悅目的紋理,令人想到蝙蝠飛翔於深藍色的天空,或是(因為蝙 蝠白天不露面),
    螭龍仲夏嬉戲。

    藍寶石和紅寶石都比翡翠硬,一般是膛掏得不太徹底,但盡管跟形式大體上與本壺一樣的翡翠煙壺比較,本壺的確掏得不錯, 而且是由比較小的口掏的。藍寶石壺、紅寶石壺、和翡翠壺,口經常是小的,這或許會給我們提供確定時期的線索。張義澍1888年所編撰《士那補釋》說鼻煙壺的口本來有寬於12毫米者,後來,新模式口寬不會超過6毫米的。張義澍並沒有指明模式轉變的時期,不過,看小口硬石煙壺的典型實例,可以推測,乾隆期,特別是乾隆後半期,口寬限於6 毫米的模式已經出現了。

    趙之謙1864~1868年間撰的《勇盧閑詰》草稿中,沒有提到藍寶石和紅寶石煙壺,就是現今的收藏家也有不少未曾觸摸過這兩種石料作的鼻煙壺。當然,趙之謙不可能像我們如今瀏覽私人收藏系列與公有收藏系列成千上萬的物品照片,雖然他跟很多詩朋酒侶聚談就少不得拿出煙壺來彼此賞玩,那時的古董店也陳列許多可參觀的煙壺,但他一輩子目睹的鼻煙壺一定不如我們現在翻一翻幾本書就能看到的那麼多。趙之謙不過是舉人,官江西鄱陽、奉新知縣,肯定沒有機會目睹禁宮裏、今天在多少書籍上已經發表過的煙壺。如果他見過過藍寶石煙壺或紅寶石煙壺,他不會默默無言的,特別是因為他曾經說過,玉太硬了,玉器膛太不好掏的;硬度幾倍高的藍寶石、紅寶石一定會給他極深的印象,見了掏膛完整的這種煙壺,他不會不提。

    雖然從現今的美學標準來看,本壺的蓋有點大,但它罕見的、顯眼的翡翠座與圓頭碧璽配得很豪華。再者,塞緊一點也沒問題,如此規模的蓋還是好抽,比較實用,這多少也會影響清朝的美學考慮。
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