CIVIL WAR – OLIVER CROMWELL AND WARWICK CASTLE
Lot 43
CIVIL WAR – OLIVER CROMWELL and WARWICK CASTLE
Sold for £20,400 (US$ 32,647) inc. premium

Lot Details
CIVIL WAR – OLIVER CROMWELL and WARWICK CASTLE
Papers of Colonel Joseph Hawkesworth MP, nearly all addressed to him in his capacity of Governor of Warwick Castle during the Civil War, comprising:
(i) Letter signed by Oliver Cromwell ("O: Cromwell"), ordering Hawkesworth to reduce the garrison at Warwick Castle by "one Ensigne one sergeant one Corporall two Drummers gentll of Armes one gunners mate the Marshall & forty common soldiers" by the twentieth of the month, paying them in the meantime and securing their arms, 8 October 1651;
(ii) Commission signed by Cromwell as Lord Protector ("Oliver P"), appointing Hawkesworth captain of a troop of horse of 100 volunteers, 28 May 1655;
(iii) Letter signed by Prince Rupert ("Rupert"), to Captain Delony of the Prince of Wales Regiment, ordering the arrest of four Royalist soldiers for robbing Francis Baskerville, servant of William Clempson [grocer] of Abingdon ("...unlesse they will give the said Clempson satisfaction... them presently to commit to the Provost Marshall Generall of his Ma.ties horse forces at Abbingdon..."), 31 January 1643[/4];
(iv) Warrant signed by Charles I's judge John Bradshaw ("Jo: Bradshawe President"), as President of the Council of State, committing Colonel Eyres to Warwick Castle for levying war against the Commonwealth, 28 July 1649;
(v) Three documents signed by Sir Thomas Fairfax ("T: Fairfax"), all issued on the same day, ordering Hawkesworth to take possession of Warwick Castle, appointing him Governor of the Castle, and captain of a company of foot, 7 February 1648[/9];
(vi) Two commissions, the first signed by the Regicide William Purefoy MP, as Commander-in-Chief of Stafford and Warwickshire with Coventry and Lichfield, appointing Hawkesworth captain in his regiment, the second signed by six members of the Committee of Safety for the County of Warwick and City and County of Coventry, appointing Hawkesworth major in Purefoy's regiment, 25 April 1643 and 15 November 1644;
(vii) Order signed by six members of the same Committee of Safety, ordering the destruction of Milcote House in Warwickshire, 4 December 1646;
(viii) Three Parliamentary documents, the first signed by the Clerk Henry Scobell, the other two by the Speaker William Lenthall, the last also bearing a postscript to Purefoy by the Serjeant-at-Arms, Edward Birkhead, comprising the Resolution committing the bookseller Philip Chetwin to Warwick Castle, the warrant for his delivery, and the order of his release, 26 December 1649, 17 April 1650 and 12 February 1650[/1];
(ix) Return submitted on Behalf of Hawkesworth to the House of Commons, signed by William Purefoy and six other members of the Committee for Warwickshire, listing the sums owed to Hawkesworth by the state, totalling nearly £3000, Coventry, 11 October 1649;
(x) Document signed by the four elected trustees of soldiers owed arrears of pay making over Kenilworth Castle to Hawkesworth for £2000, 1 February 1650[/1];
(xi) Order by the Council of State, signed by Arthur Annesley, President, issued a month before Charles II's landing, thanking Hawkesworth for his loyal service and ordering him to disband the garrison at Warwick Castle and deliver it to Lord Brooke, 23 April 1660; together with earlier documents, including a letter signed by Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, to his estate steward, 1 August 1601; a demand by Charles I for a forced loan, printed with manuscript insertions and signed by James Mylles, Clerk to the Privy Seal, whereby £20 is required from Anne Robins, a widow of Gloucester [ESTC S31123, one other exemplum of this variant recorded in the Library of the Society of Antiquaries], 30 July 1626; and a Letter by Charles I's Privy Council letter signed by George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, and seventeen others, to the High Sheriff of Bedfordshire, convening the county's Bailiffs and Justices, 12 February 1627[/8]; plus contemporary copies of two commissions, twenty items in all, five commissions on vellum, others on paper, some dust-staining, paper losses etc., the Cromwell order (no. i above) strengthened on reverse with consequent staining, the Cromwell commission (ii) with old ink stains, the first Fairfax order (v) with seal and blank areas removed, with further dust-staining, paper and seal-losses, etc., mostly folio, 1601-1660

Footnotes

  • PAPERS OF COLONEL JOSEPH HAWKESWORTH MP, GOVERNOR OF WARWICK CASTLE, INCLUDING DOCUMENTS SIGNED BY CROMWELL, PRINCE RUPERT, GEORGE VILLIERS DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM, SIR THOMAS FAIRFAX, JOHN BRADSHAW, SPEAKER LENTHALL and others.

    Hawkesworth served as one of the Members for Warwickshire in the second and third Protectorate Parliaments of 1656 and 1659, in the first of these succeeding his former colonel William Purefoy as fourth member for the county. But he is now perhaps best known now as the man responsible for partly destroying Kenilworth Castle, the celebrated palace of Elizabeth I's favourite Leicester, which he converted from a fortification into a private dwelling, with the agreement whereby the castle was sold to him for his private use being included in the archive: "from the time of the first payment that Major Hawksworth shall have all the materials of Kennilworth Castle, he defraying ye charges of pulling it downe & enjoying the profits of what hath beene already sould. And that the sayd Major Hawksworth shall have the ground, whereon the materials & houses stand, with the tilt yard & orchard, he paying for it as it is purchased from the state" (see no. x above). A lesser casualty of this policy was nearby Milcote House, formerly seat of James I's minister Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, which Hawkesworth was ordered to blow up by the Warwickshire Committee of Safety: "The Enemy advancing into ye Country about Milcott house... for the Service of the State & peace & safety of the County wherewith we were Instrusted Order Major Joseph Hawkesworth with three barrels of Powder to blow up the roofe... there by to unfit the said house for the use of the Enemy" (vii above). The majority of documents in this archive relate to Warwick Castle of which Hawkesworth was Governor and which was used for guarding parliamentary prisoners. Among those committed to his care was Philip Chetwind, later co-publisher of the Shakespeare Third Folio, who had offended the Commons by organizing the election of the Leveller John Lilburne to the Common Council of London (viii above).

    The collection was listed by E. Carey-Hill, 'The Hawkesworth Papers 1601-60' in Transactions of the Birmingham Archaeological Society, vol.liv, 1929-30 (and reprinted by the Oxford University Press, 1932); from which Abbott and others have taken details. As Carey-Hill observes, from the endorsements in a near-contemporary hand on nearly all the documents it is clear that the archive has been kept together since the seventeenth century, including those documents not ostensibly relating directly to Hawkesworth, such as the letter by Prince Rupert (which Carey-Hill plausibly suggests was spoil of battle) and the Privy Council letter signed by Buckingham. From the dockets, which style him "Bro: Hawkesworth", it seems likely that the archive was inherited by his in-laws (see the family tree provided by Carey-Hill, although he ignores this clue believing it merely evidence of puritan proclivities). Included in the lot is a copy of the 1932 edition of 'The Hawkesworth Papers 1601-60', inscribed by Carey-Hill, and a letter of 1930 thanking the owner of the collection for lending them to him.
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