Henry Fitzalan, son of Sir William Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel and Anne Percy was baptised with King Henry VIII as his sponsor. He married, 1stly, Catherine Grey, daughter of Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset and 2ndly in 1545, Mary Arundell, daughter of Sir John Arundell.
He was Page of Honour to King Edward VIII and became Lord Mautravers 1532/33. He held the office of Deputy Governor of Calais 1540-4 and succeeded as 12th Earl of Arundel 1543/44. He was awarded the Order of the Garter on 18 May 1544. He was 'Marshal of the Field' in the war against the French, 1544, and distinguished himself at the taking of Boulogne. He became a Privy Counsellor in 1546 and Lord Chamberlain 1546-50. He was named by King Henry VIII in 1547 as one of the Council of Twelve and held the office of High Constable, at the coronation of King Edward VI. From 1551-2 he was imprisoned in the Tower, by the Duke of the Northumberland, but took revenge by pretending to help him setting up Lady Jane Grey as Queen, then betraying him to Queen Mary, and arresting him at Cambridge. He was Lord Steward of the Household in 1553, High Constable, at the coronation of Queen Mary and Lord High Steward in 1553/54, at the trial of the Duke of Suffolk. He held the office of High Steward of Oxford University 1555-9 and Chancellor of the University in 1559. In 1564 he resigned all of his offices but was Commissioner at the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots in 1568. Before 1572 he was again imprisoned, for aiding his son-in-law, the Duke of Norfolk, in trying to obtain Mary, Queen of Scots in marriage.